What types and structures are there of fire doors, and what are the installation requirements?
1), fire door type
1. Fire doors can be divided into wooden fire doors, steel fire doors, steel and wood fire doors and fire doors made of other materials according to their materials.
2. According to the number of door leaves, it can be divided into single-leaf fire doors, double-leaf fire doors and multi-leaf fire doors (fire doors containing more than two door leaves).
3. According to the structure type, it can be divided into fire doors with fire-resistant glass on the door leaf, fire doors with bright windows, fire doors with glass and bright windows and fire doors without glass.
4. According to the fire resistance performance, it can be divided into insulated fire doors, partially insulated fire doors and non-insulated fire doors. It should be noted that although there are many types of fire resistance properties of fire doors, in practical applications the main ones are insulated fire doors, which are what we usually call Class A, Class B, and Class C fire doors.
5. According to the classification of fire resistance, they are divided into insulated fire doors (Category A), partially insulated fire doors (Category B), and non-insulated fire doors (Category C). The fire doors commonly used in our general buildings are Class A. fire-proof door. Class A fire doors are divided into Class A, Class B and Class C fire doors based on fire resistance and heat insulation performance.
2), fire door composition
Fire doors are composed of the following parts: door frames, door leaf frames, door leaf fireproof filling materials, fireproof hinges, fireproof locks (push rod locks), expansion seals, door closers, sequencers, electromagnetic door catches, and fireproof glass.
The steel fireproof door frame and door leaf frame are stamped and assembled from galvanized iron plates. The thickness of the door frame steel plate should be greater than 1.2mm, and the door leaf should be greater than 0.8mm. The physical and chemical properties of steel plates need to meet the corresponding standard requirements of cold-rolled and hot-rolled steel plates.
The wooden boards used for wooden fire doors should be flame-retardant and meet corresponding requirements.
Aluminum silicate wool, rock wool or perlite fireproof board can be used as filling materials. Rock wool and aluminum silicate wool seriously endanger people's health due to dust pollution and will be gradually eliminated with the implementation of new standards. In recent years, the filling material of door core has basically been perlite fireproof board. Compared with other door core materials, perlite fireproof board has the characteristics of non-toxicity, good thermal insulation performance and simple process. Filling materials are mainly concerned with their combustion properties and smoke-generating toxicity.
3), fire door installation requirements
The fire doors set up in the building must not only maintain the integrity of the fire separation of the building, but also facilitate the opening and evacuation of personnel. Their installation must comply with relevant national standards.
1. Fire doors installed in areas where people often pass through the building should use normally open fire doors. Normally open fire doors should be able to close themselves in case of fire and should have a signal feedback function;
2. The alarm signal of two independent fire detectors or a fire detector and a manual fire alarm button in the fire zone where the normally open fire door is located should be used as the linkage trigger signal for the closing of the normally open fire door. The linkage trigger The signal should be sent by the fire alarm controller or fire linkage controller, and the fire door should be closed by the fire linkage controller or fire door monitor. The opening, closing and fault status signals of each fire door on the evacuation passage should be fed back to the fire door monitor.
3. In order to prevent smoke or fire from entering the evacuation passage through the door opening and ensure the relative safety of the evacuation passage within a certain period of time, the fire door should be kept closed as much as possible at ordinary times. Except for the locations where normally open fire doors are allowed, fire doors in other locations should be normally closed fire doors. In addition to tube well inspection doors and residential doors, fire doors should have a self-closing function, so normally closed fire doors should be equipped with automatic door closers; double-leaf fire doors should have the function of self-closing in sequence, so double-leaf fire doors A sequencer should be installed on the door; normally closed fire doors should be equipped with prompt signs such as "Keep Fire Door Closed" at obvious locations.
4. In reality, fire doors cannot effectively prevent smoke from intruding because the sealing strips will not expand when the specified temperature is not reached. This is a problem for the safety belts of people after fires in hotels, residences, apartments, hospital inpatient departments and other places. Come with hidden dangers. Therefore, fire doors are required to have smoke-proof performance after being closed under normal use.